ASIAN STEM CELL INSTITUTE

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Stem Cell Treatment for Hearing Loss is Available at ASCI

Stem Cell Treatment for Hearing LossStem Cells for Hearing Loss

 

Related Articles Connexin 26 null mice exhibit spiral ganglion degeneration that can be blocked by BDNF gene therapy. Hear Res. 2014 Mar;309:124-35 Authors: Takada Y, Beyer LA, Swiderski DL, O'Neal AL, Prieskorn DM, Shivatzki S, Avraham KB, Raphael Y Abstract Mutations in the connexin 26 gene (GJB2) are the most common genetic cause of deafness, leading to congenital bilateral non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss. Here we report the generation of a mouse model for a connexin 26 (Cx26) mutation, in which cre-Sox10 drives excision of the Cx26 gene from non-sensory cells flanking the auditory epithelium. We determined that these conditional knockout mice, designated Gjb2-CKO, have a severe hearing loss. Immunocytochemistry of the auditory epithelium confirmed absence of Cx26 in the non-sensory cells. Histology of the organ of Corti and the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) performed at ages 1, 3, or 6 months revealed that in Gjb2-CKO mice, the organ of Corti began to degenerate in the basal cochlear turn at an early stage, and the degeneration rapidly spread to the apex. In addition, the density of SGNs in Rosenthal's canal decreased rapidly along a gradient from the base of the cochlea to the apex, where some SGNs survived until at least 6 months of age. Surviving neurons often clustered together and formed clumps of cells in the canal. We then assessed the influence of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene therapy on the SGNs of Gjb2-CKO mice by inoculating Adenovirus with the BDNF gene insert (Ad.BDNF) into the base of the cochlea via the scala tympani or scala media. We determined that over-expression of BDNF beginning around 1 month of age resulted in a significant rescue of neurons in Rosenthal's canal of the cochlear basal turn but not in the middle or apical portions. This data may be used to design therapies for enhancing the SGN physiological status in all GJB2 patients and especially in a sub-group of GJB2 patients where the hearing loss progresses due to ongoing degeneration of the auditory nerve, thereby improving the outcome of cochlear implant therapy in these ears. PMID: 24333301 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Related Articles Loss of the tectorial membrane protein CEACAM16 enhances spontaneous, stimulus-frequency, and transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions. J Neurosci. 2014 Jul 30;34(31):10325-38 Authors: Cheatham MA, Goodyear RJ, Homma K, Legan PK, Korchagina J, Naskar S, Siegel JH, Dallos P, Zheng J, Richardson GP Abstract α-Tectorin (TECTA), β-tectorin (TECTB), and carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 16 (CEACAM) are secreted glycoproteins that are present in the tectorial membrane (TM), an extracellular structure overlying the hearing organ of the inner ear, the organ of Corti. Previous studies have shown that TECTA and TECTB are both required for formation of the striated-sheet matrix within which collagen fibrils of the TM are imbedded and that CEACAM16 interacts with TECTA. To learn more about the structural and functional significance of CEACAM16, we created a Ceacam16-null mutant mouse. In the absence of CEACAM16, TECTB levels are reduced, a clearly defined striated-sheet matrix does not develop, and Hensen's stripe, a prominent feature in the basal two-thirds of the TM in WT mice, is absent. CEACAM16 is also shown to interact with TECTB, indicating that it may stabilize interactions between TECTA and TECTB. Although brain-stem evoked responses and distortion product otoacoustic emissions are, for most frequencies, normal in young mice lacking CEACAM16, stimulus-frequency and transiently evoked emissions are larger. We also observed spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) in 70% of the homozygous mice. This incidence is remarkable considering that <3% of WT controls have SOAEs. The predominance of SOAEs >15 kHz correlates with the loss of Hensen's stripe. Results from mice lacking CEACAM16 are consistent with the idea that the organ of Corti evolved to maximize the gain of the cochlear amplifier while preventing large oscillations. Changes in TM structure appear to influence the balance between energy generation and dissipation such that the system becomes unstable. PMID: 25080593 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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